Lecture 7: The Third Part of Logic and the Syllogism



Supplementary Text


I. Introduction.

    A. Last time four kinds of statements and their relations.
    B. Today: third part of logic, discursive reasoning, from one to another.

II.    Parts and order of the Third Part of Logic.
    A. Comparison to natural processes.
        1. St. Thomas compares natural and rational processes.
        2. Three kinds of natural processes in abstract: then example of necessary: earth spinning.
        3. Examples of non-necessary natural processes: complete animal and monster.
    B. Three rational processes.
        1. First and second parts of third part: judging and discovering logic in abstract.
            a. Judging and discovering logic: an example, God according to St. Thomas and Plato.
            b. Necessity of discovering logic: prior and easier to understand.
        2. Third part: sophistic to avoid mistakes in self and others.
        3. Summary of three parts.
    C. Subdivisions of parts.
        1. Division of judging part according to necessity from form alone or also matter.
            a. Two parts and books in Aristotle.
        2. Dividing the discovering part: titles of books and comparison to natural processes.
            a. First rational discovering process: dialectic, solid opinion, statesman.
            b. Second discovering process: rhetoric, strong suspicion, public.
            c. Third discovering process: poetics, tendency, representation, Macbeth.
            d. Summary: dialectic, rhetoric, and poetics.

III.    The rest of this lecture: definitions of syllogism and its parts.
    A. Definitions of parts.
        1. Definition of the proposition. Example, not explained how differs from statement.
        2. Definition of term. Same example, leaves out being.
    B. Definition of syllogism: complex expression made of statements.
        1. Propositions or premisses and conclusion. Example of syllogism.
        2. Follows from being so.

IV.    Conclusion: next time finish syllogism.


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