Lecture 6: The Kinds of Statements and Relations of Opposition Between Them



Supplementary Text


I.    Introduction.

    A. Review definitions of statement, noun, and verb.

II.    Kinds of Statements.
    A. Preliminary notions.
        1. What we mean by different kinds of statements.
        2. Statement, proposition, enunciation.
    B. Divisions themselves.
        1. Affirmation and denial division according to form.
            a. Affirmation: joining signifies joining.
            b. Denial, joining signifies separation.
        2. Second division: universal and particular statements.
            a. Aristotle and St. Thomas on the more and less universal: comparison to the whole and part.
                (1)    Likeness between universal whole and part and quantitative whole and part.
                (2)    That the notions of whole and part are analogous.
                (3)    The most obvious difference: universal whole predicates of parts, quantitative not.
            b. Applies these distinctions to universal and particular statements.
        3. Names for two ways of dividing statements.
    C. The chart of kinds of statements.
        1. Particulars do not imply each other.

III.    Opposition of Statements.
    A. Principle: Relations between statements specified by truth and falsity.
    B. Oppositions themselves.
        1. Contraries: not same as in Categories.
            a. Likeness to simple contraries: exclusion and middle.
            b. Summing up contraries: definition and rules.
        2. Contradictories: what they are.
            a. Summing up contradictories: definition and rules.

IV.    Objection: logic is not necessary for second operation because statements and contradiction are natural.
    A. Answer: Logic of second operation perfects statements and contradictions.

V. Conclusion: 
    A. Summing up lesson on statements.
    B. Rest of course about third operation. 


Purchase This Course                               << Previous               Next >>                                   Return to Top