Lesson 6: The Thirty Years War and The Peace of Westphalia
Questions and Assignments
The Thirty Years War
1. Describe the "Huguenot" policy of Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV to 1685.
2. Trace the course of Catholic / Protestant relations in the Holy Roman Empire from 1555 to 1618.
3. Explain the nature of the Thirty Years War and the role played in it by France and Cardinal Richelieu.
4. Describe the four phases of the War, mentioning Tilly, Wallenstein, Gustavus Adolphus, and Richelieu.
5. How and why did the War end in 1648? What did it do to Germany and the Germans?
The Peace of Westphalia
1. Evaluate the Peace of Westphalia and explain why 1648 is a key date in European and Church History.
2. Why do many historians today think that the Counter-Reformation did not end in 1648 but must be extended to 1700, even to 1770, as Hsia does?
3. The best way to see and to understand what Counter-Reformation Catholicism thought of itself is to visit Rome. Explain.
4. Jansenism plagued 17th century France. What was Jansenism and what role did Blaise Pascal play in the Jansenists' quarrel with the Jesuits?
5. As we study the Counter-Reformation and the Reformation we can clearly see that political power and war contributed more than truth or the rightness of one's cause to the success of one or the other side. Explain and comment.